Applications Vaccixcell

Bacteria and Fungi

VacciXcell’s stirred tank fermenter bioreactor, StirCradle and StirCradle Pro, is capable of culturing and processing the following species of bacteria and fungi as proven by our existing customers.

 

  1. Bacillus subtilis

    Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous naturally occurring saprophytic bacterium that is commonly recovered from soil, water, air, and decomposing plant material. B. subtilis bacteria produce a class of lipopeptide antibiotics

     

     

    Sources:

    MATERIAL FACT SHEET Bacillus subtilis. (2010, October 13). Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.cefs.ncsu.edu/newsevents/events/2010/sosa2010/20101013tomato/product01-bacillussubtilis.pdf

     

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a microbe naturally found in soil. It makes proteins that are toxic  to immature insects (larvae). Bt has been registered for use in pesticides by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1961.

     

     

    Sources:

    Bacillus Thuringiensis GENERAL FACT SHEET. (2015, February). Retrieved May 3, 2016, from http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/BTgen.pdf

     

  3. Fungus for Oil Composting

    Some fungus can be used for bioremediation, such as those for soil and water remediation. Ligninolytic fungi for example is known to produce enzymes whoch degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vitro.

     

     

    Sources:

    Novotný, ?, Svobodová, K., Erbanová, P., Cajthaml, T., Kasinath, A., Lang, E., & Šašek, V. (2004). Ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation: Extracellular enzyme production and degradation rate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36(10), 1545-1551. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.07.019

     

  4. Caterpillar Fungus

    Cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps) sinensis, the Chinese caterpillar fungus or Cordyceps in brief, is an important medicinal fungus in Chinese herbal medicine with a wide range of health benefits and bioactivities. Because wild C. sinensis fungus (in the form of insect caterpillar-fungal fruiting body complex) is very expensive and rare in nature, mycelial fermentation has become the main source of C. sinensis fungal materials. Liquid or submerged fermentation of fungal mycelia has been widely exploited for large-scale production of C. sinensis mycelium biomass and exopolysaccharides (EPS).

     

     

    Sources:

    Paek, K., Murthy, H. N., & Zhong, J. (2014). Production of biomass and bioactive compounds using bioreactor technology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

    Wu, J., & Yan, J. (n.d.). Submerged Fermentation of Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis for Production of Biologically Active Mycelial Biomass and Exopolysaccharides. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-017-9223-3_5

     

  5. Ganoderma lucidum (Fungus)

    Ganoderma lucidum is a large dark mushroom with glossy exterior and a woody texture that has a long history of health uses in China, Japan and other Asian countries. Aside from being a health supplement, it has found use in therapeutical applications such as supplementary cancer treatment

     

     

    Sources:

    Benzie, I. F., & Wachtel-Galor, S. (2011). Herbal medicine: Biomolecular and clinical aspects. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

     

  6. Yeast

    Yeast is used for the production of eukaryotic proteins for pharmaceutical industry and research purposes.  Yeasts are suitable for these applications due to the ease of microbial growth and gene manipulation along with eukaryotic environment. Yeasts is also able to perform many eukaryote-specific post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic, processing, folding, disulfide bridge formation, and glycosy-lation

     

     

    Sources:

    Cereghino, G. (1999). Applications of yeast in biotechnology: Protein production and genetic analysis. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 10(5), 422-427. doi:10.1016/s0958-1669(99)00004-x

     

  7. Algae

    Algae is used in aquaculture as food and live feed for molluscs, abalone, crustaceans, some fish species and zooplankton. Algae is also used in the health industry as ingredients for supplements due to its important compounds such as β-carotene, astaxanthin, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)

     

     

    Sources:

    Carlsson, A. S., & Bowles, D. J. (2007). Micro- and macro-algae: Utility for industrial applications: Outputs from the EPOBIO project, September 2007. Speen: CPL Press.

     

  8. Monascus

    Monascus is a natural pigment producing microorganism that can be used for food, printer and textile dying. These pigments, which usually come in yellow, orange and red, also have antimicrobial properties which can be used in pharmaceutical industry

     

     

    Sources:

    Vendruscolo, F., Bühler, R. M. M., de Carvalho, J. C., de Oliveira, D., Moritz, D. E., Schmidell, W., & Ninow, J. L. (2016). Monascus: a Reality on the Production and Application of Microbial Pigments. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 178(2), 211-223.

     

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)

    Lactic Acid Bacteria or Lactobacillus are used as probiotic strains or microorganisms which are integrated into food for health benefit purposes. Also, LAB also exhibit some antimicrobial and anti-cancer properties

     

     

    Sources:

    Ljungh, A., & Wadstrom, T. (2006). Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics. Current issues in intestinal microbiology, 7(2), 73-90.

     

  10. Hydrogen (Clostridium)

    Clostridium is a group of species that plays a critical role in disease dynamics and which causes illness to both human and animals. Clostridial organisms have applications in industry such as biofuels. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is used to produce biological hydrogen via fermentation process. 

     

     

    Sources:

    Num, S. M., Useh, N. M., Suliman, E. S., El Zubeir, I. E., Qumsiyeh, M. B., Zavala, S. S., ... & Adikay, S. (2014). Clostridium: Pathogenic Roles, Industrial Uses and Medicinal Prospects of Natural Products as Ameliorative Agents against Pathogenic Species. Biological, 81.

     

    Zhang, H., Bruns, M. A., & Logan, B. E. (2006). Biological hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an unsaturated flow reactor. Water Research, 40(4), 728-734.

     

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most studied Rhamnolipid producer due to its potential for application in a wide variety of industries. Rhamnolipid are used to produce products such as Rhamnolipid surfactant

     

     

    Sources:

    Toribio, J., Escalante, A. E., & Soberón?Chávez, G. (2010). Rhamnolipids: Production in bacteria other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa. European journal of lipid science and technology, 112(10), 1082-1087.

     

  12. Acetic Acid Bacteria

    Acetic Acid Bacteria have the capability to oxidize carbohydrates and alcohols into aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. These oxidation products are used in a wide variety of industries including medicine.

     

     

    Sources:

    Stasiak, L., & Blazejak, S. (2009). Acetic acid bacteria-perspectives of application in biotechnology-a review. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 59(1).

     

  13. Aspergillus

    Aspergillus species are used for producing heterologous proteins and new industrial enzymes through submerged fermentation. 

     

     

    Sources:

    Christensen, T. (1994). Application: Aspergillus oryzae as a host for production of industrial enzymes. In The Genus Aspergillus (pp. 251-259). Springer US.

     

  14. Taiwanofungus camphoratus

    In Taiwan, Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a common medicinal fungi use in folk medicine and as detoxicant for food poisoning. It also has anti-inflammation properties through its ethanol extracts

     

     

    Sources:

    Hsieh, Y. H., Chu, F. H., Wang, Y. S., Chien, S. C., Chang, S. T., Shaw, J. F., ... & Wang, S. Y. (2010). Antrocamphin A, an anti-inflammatory principal from the fruiting body of Taiwanofungus camphoratus, and its mechanisms. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(5), 3153-3158.

     

  15. Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of the throat. It can lead to difficulty breathing, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Vaccines are recommended for infants, children, teens and adults to prevent diphtheria.

    Diphtheria vaccine is made from inactivated Corynebacterium diphtheria bacteria in order to make a toxoid vaccine that will stimulate immune response but with no pathogenic hazard. In order to culture (bacteria) properly, pH, temperature, agitation and gas concentration must be monitored.

    VacciXcell's StircradleTM and StirCradleTM-Pro has automatic parameter monitoring and control for pH, temperature, pressure, agitation and gas concentration. Temperature is controlled through a water jacket, allowing it to cater to both high and low temperature requirements. Agitation and aeration can be optimized by selecting the most appropriate impeller from the wide selection range available.

     

     

    Sources:

    (2016, January 15). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from www.cdc.gov

     

  16. Bordetella pertussis

    Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease. It is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.

    Pertussis is known for uncontrollable, violent coughing which often makes it hard to breathe. After fits of many coughs, someone with pertussis often needs to take deep breaths which result in a "whooping" sound. Pertussis can affect people of all ages, but can be very serious, even deadly, for babies less than a year old.

    The best way to protect against pertussis is by getting vaccinated

    Pertussis vaccine is made from inactivated Bordetella pertussis bacteria in order to make a toxoid vaccine that will stimulate immune response but with no pathogenic hazard. In order to culture (bacteria) properly, pH, temperature, agitation and gas concentration must be monitored.

    VacciXcell's StircradleTM and StirCradleTM-Pro has automatic parameter monitoring and control for pH, temperature, pressure, agitation and gas concentration. Temperature is controlled through a water jacket, allowing it to cater to both high and low temperature requirements. Agitation and aeration can be optimized by selecting the most appropriate impeller from the wide selection range available.

     

     

    Sources:

    (2016, January 26). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from www.cdc.gov

     

  17. Clostridium tetani

    Tetanus is an infection caused by bacteria called Clostridium tetani. When the bacteria invade the body, they produce a poison (toxin) that causes painful muscle contractions. Another name for tetanus is "lockjaw" because it often causes a person's neck and jaw muscles to lock, making it hard to open the mouth or swallow. Vaccines are recommended for infants, children, teens, and adults to prevent tetanus.

    Tetanus vaccine is made from inactivated Clostridium tetani bacteria in order to make a toxoid vaccine that will stimulate immune response but with no pathogenic hazard. In order to culture (bacteria) properly, pH, temperature, agitation and gas concentration must be monitored.

    VacciXcell's StircradleTM and StirCradleTM-Pro has automatic parameter monitoring and control for pH, temperature, pressure, agitation and gas concentration. Temperature is controlled through a water jacket, allowing it to cater to both high and low temperature requirements. Agitation and aeration can be optimized by selecting the most appropriate impeller from the wide selection range available.

     

     

    Sources:

    (2017, January 10). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from www.cdc.gov

     

  18. Vibrio cholerae

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development. Researchers have estimated that every year, there are roughly 1.3 to 4.0 million cases, and 21 000 to 143 000 deaths worldwide due to cholera

    Cholera vaccine is made from inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria in order to make a toxoid vaccine that will stimulate immune response but with no pathogenic hazard. In order to culture (bacteria) properly, pH, temperature, agitation and gas concentration must be monitored.

    VacciXcell's StircradleTM and StirCradleTM-Pro has automatic parameter monitoring and control for pH, temperature, pressure, agitation and gas concentration. Temperature is controlled through a water jacket, allowing it to cater to both high and low temperature requirements. Agitation and aeration can be optimized by selecting the most appropriate impeller from the wide selection range available.

     

     

    Sources:

    Cholera. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from www.who.int