Type of Vaccines by Age Group
Pediatric (Infants and Children)
Vaccines are generally administered to children according to a recommended immunization schedule to prevent common and rare illnesses. Regular check-ups to the doctor are usually done to ensure children are up-to-date with their shots. The following diseases should be prevented through vaccination:
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Influenza (flu)
- Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
- Pneumococcal disease
Preteens and teenagers are still at high risk of getting infected and since they have fewer appointments to the doctor than when they were younger, they still need to be regularly immunized. Recommended vaccines are as follows:
- Influenza (Flu) vaccine
- Tetanus vaccine
- Diptheria vaccine
- Pertussis vaccine
- Meningococcal vaccine
Vaccination during pregnancy has shown to be effective in protecting the mother and unborn baby from illnesses. Maternal immunization provides immunity to the mother, fetus, and newborn baby through the transplacental transfer of vaccine maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG). Maternal IgG gives passive insusceptibility amid the initial 6 months of a newborn child's life preceding the baby's capacity to completely respond to immunization. Maternal immunization can likewise prevent sickness in both the mother and her unborn child during a highly risky situation in their lives. Presently, the only vaccines approved for use during pregnancy are for tetanus, flu, and pertussis.
As humans age, appointments to the doctor are becoming fewer thereby increasing their chances of getting infected since they are less likely to be up-to-date with their recommended vaccines. Immunization is an integral component of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and as such adults should be committed to it.
Throughout adulthood it is recommended that adults be vaccinated against the following diseases:
- Influenza (flu) – 1 dose should be administered annually
- Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap/Td) – administer Tdap vaccine once then Td booster every 10 years
- Hepatitis B – for adults who have diabetes or simply at high risk
- Other vaccines that should be considered include those that protect adults from Human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A, chickenpox, meningococcal disease, measles, mumps, and rubella
Older adults should even more committed to keeping up-to-date with their vaccinations since they are more susceptible to diseases along with the possible complications. Vaccines recommended are the following:
- Influenza (flu)
- Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap/Td)
- Shingles –1 dose
- Pneumococcal disease – 1 dose
On the other hand, a vaccine has yet to be developed for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a virus that infects the respiratory tract. It is highly contagious and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it has caused 177,000 hospitalizations and 14,000 deaths among adults older than 65.
The VacciXcell Advantage
VacciXcell offers a wide range of bioreactors that are suitable for all stages of development of vaccines. For those starting out in the research and development, the CelCradle™ is an ideal bioreactor system that is capable of processing adherent cell culture. Operating under the tide motion principle, the cells residing in the matrix vessel are alternately exposed to aeration and nutrition via the gentle oscillation of the culture medium. It has the advantage of producing high cell density, has no oxygen limitation, and being cost-effective. On the other hand, the TideCell® is a pilot and production scale bioreactor that works under the tide motion principle as well. It is linearly scalable up to 5000L and the only packed bed bioreactor that can be placed inside a cGMP isolator.
Attention parents: Get trustworthy information about vaccines. (2015). Retrieved September 23, 2016, from http://www.vaccines.com/infant-child-vaccine-immunization.cfm
Chu, H. Y., & Englund, J. A. (2014). Maternal Immunization. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 59(4), 560–568.
What vaccines do I need? Retrieved September 23, 2016, from http://www.adultvaccination.org/what-vaccines
Vaccinations for Adults. Retrieved September 23, 2016, from http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/p4030.pdf
Vaccines for Teenagers. Retrieved September 22, 2016, from http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/vaccines-teenagers