May 03, 2018
Esophageal cancer is one of most frequently diagnosed cancer in Asia specifically in China and Japan. According to International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR), an estimated 17,497 new cases and 11,746 deaths in China; and 17,497 new cases and 11,746 deaths caused by esophageal cancer in Japan last year.
Overall incidence and mortality rates for esophageal cancer are higher in these two Asian countries. It is more common among men than among women because men are more likely engaged to drinking alcoholic beverages and smoking; all of which triggers this type cancer.
Esophageal cancer starts in the inner layer or the mucosa of the esophagus and grows throughout the submucosa and muscle layer. Since 2 types of cells can line the esophagus, there are 2 main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma where the squamous cells are affected; and adenocarcinoma where the cancer start in the gland cells (cells that make mucus).
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of esophageal cancer in China. Although many people with esophageal cancer will go on to die from this disease, treatment has been improved, and survival rates are getting better.
Aside from immunotherapy and chemotherapy, esophageal cancer can also be treated using targeted drugs which can be given by mouth or directly into the bloodstream. These targeted drugs have been developed to target the changes in cells that causes cancer. They can be used either along with chemotherapy or by themselves.
Like breast cancer, overexpressed Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or HER-2 protein is present on a small number in esophagus cancer, which can help cancer cells to grow. Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that attaches to proteins or receptors on cancer cells to make the cells stop from growing and eventually die.
Moreover, cancer cells need to create new blood vessels for tumors get blood and other nutrients. This way, cancer cells grow and spread more. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secreted protein that tells the body to make new blood vessels. This protein binds to cell surface proteins or receptors to act. In this case Scientists developed another monoclonal antibody that binds to a receptor for VEGF. This keeps VEGF from binding to the receptors and signaling the body to make more blood vessels. In this way, the growth and spread of cancer will be stopped.
The new monoclonal antibody produced using a genetically engineered mammalian NS0 cells and further proliferate in a fed-batch process. Esco VacciXcell CelCradle™ bioreactor is the most advanced bioreactor that can produce the targeted secreted products. It is designed based on the concept of bellow-induced intermittent flow of media and air through porous matrices (BioNOC™ II) where cells reside.
BioNOC™ II provides high rate exposure of cells to aeration and culture medium because of its high porosity. Moreover, it is favorable for mAbs production because of its low fiber release that results in more downstream processes.
With the use of Tide Motion principle, the gentle vertical oscillation of culture medium and air provides cells an environment that is low shear stress to avoid cell damage or cell death. NS0 cell cultures require high aeration and nutrition level to reproduce and perform more. This efficient nutrient and oxygen transfer is what allows the tide motion system to produce high-density cell yield.
Due to high demand treatment for esophageal cancer, this targeted drug needs to produce in large amount. Esco VacciXcell TideCell® is the world’s largest linearly scalable single-use bioreactor, from seed preparation to 5,000 liters with closed automated cell harvesting. It is the pilot or production scale system of Esco VacciXcell’s Tide Motion Bioreactors which is perfect for the mass production of mAbs.
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About Esophageal Cancer
A type of cancer that forms in tissue lining of the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach). Two types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the esophagus) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).
Reference: National Cancer Institute.
Tide Motion pertains to the gentle oscillation of culture medium into and out of the matrix vessel that intermittently exposes the cells to aeration and nutrition. The upward oscillation exposes the cells to nutrition, while the downward oscillation exposes the cells to aeration. At the same time, this process washes away products and wastes. This oscillation produces no air bubbles and low shear stress. View a range of products at http://www.vaccixcell.com/tide-technology/
About Esco VacciXcell
Esco VacciXcell is the bioprocessing division of Esco Group of Companies that specializes in the marketing and manufacturing of bioprocessing equipment for cell culture.
Esco VacciXcell provides turnkey manufacturing solutions using its proprietary Tide Motion™ technology to help developing nations to be self-sufficient in the manufacturing, storing, distribution, and administration of vaccines and other biologics, thus providing a complete solution from Discovery to Delivery. For more information on VacciXcell, please visit www.vaccixcell.com.