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Limitations of Microcarriers in High Density Cell Culture

For a significant length of time, microcarriers have been used for high density cell culture. These microcarriers are added into stirred tank bioreactors and then adherent cells bound into them to grow and proliferate. While microcarriers can be a vital part in high density cell culture it also poses significant limitations which makes the process of cell culture very laborious and expensive.

Plant Immunization

As much as immunization is important for humans and animals, plants are susceptible to diseases and need to be immunized as well. A classic example of combatting plant diseases is the application of pesticides. While it made significant contributions in increasing agricultural crop yield and quality, there are associated negative effects such as environmental and health concerns. Also, the rapid development of pesticide-resistant strains of pathogens remains to be a challenge in meeting market demands for crop yield and quality.

True Linear Scalability

Biologics product development starts with research and development followed by clinical phase and then commercial production. It is of primary concern that the bioprocessing method to be used must be linearly scalable beginning with research and development up to commercialization in order to reduce bioprocessing time and costs.